The Urgency of Rearchitecting Bitcoin's Mempool

by Jeremy Rubin


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Bitcoin is a complicated software artifact which requires active investment in discovering its flaws to harden and strengthen its implementations against fatal attacks and insidious bugs. Over the last year I’ve been investing significant efforts to put Bitcoin’s Mempool under the microscope to categorise potential bugs and vulnerabilities and come up with plans and patches to fix them.

The fruits of this labor so far have been promising in their ability to address substantial stability issues in Bitcoin, but there is still much work to be done to fully implement the necessary changes and tackle some of the harder architectural challenges. The Mempool serves as the main gatekeeper for submitting transactions to the network for inclusion in a block, which makes it one of the main ways all types of users interact with Bitcoin, and drives the urgency of completing this security critical work in a manner that respects the myriad of currently supported uses.

Judica exists in part to build a team to tackle the hard problems facing Bitcoin. In the last two months, 100x/BitMEX and ACINQ have issued grants to support Judica’s work improving Bitcoin’s Mempool over the next year. To grow our team, I plan to use these grants to sponsor other developers (either in a full or part time capacity) to contribute to the Mempool efforts. One of the chief bottlenecks in Bitcoin development is tight review and feedback loops on ambitious projects like this, so having more developers engaged under contract to complete this project as a team will help us deliver results for the Bitcoin community.

Judica is not the only organization working on improving the Mempool, Bitcoin developers have paid serious attention to it over the years and have made vast improvements and contributions. Other contributors are focused on issues like package relay and rebroadcasting. However, with this new effort I’m hoping to assemble the resources to make sustained progress on the goals described below and increase the number of developers who understand the Mempool functionality fully enough to provide high-quality review.

In the remainder of this blog post, I’m going to explain the tensions between implementing an idealized functionality of the Mempool and making it secure against resource exhaustion attacks.

The Mempool: Bitcoin’s MVP

The Mempool is one of the most critical subsystems in the Bitcoin network, yet its function is poorly understood by many businesses and projects. What role does the Mempool play?

Before transactions are mined in a block, they are typically submitted to the network to be relayed and stored until block inclusion. A Bitcoin miner uses the Mempool to select which transactions they wish to include into a block. A perfectly rational node would accept and store all transactions it had ever seen and pick the best transactions (i.e., those paying the highest fees) for mining.

Incidentally, this is why the Mempool is such an important data structure in Bitcoin. With a less rational Mempool, miners would produce less valuable blocks, and there would be less incentive to mine. All of Bitcoin would suffer for having worse security.

It’s not practical to store, process, and consider all transactions, so instead nodes make decisions on what to accept based on a number of heuristics. The Mempool is used for more than just mining, network nodes use the Mempool to figure out what is likely to be included in a block in the future to decrease block propagation latency and to relay other profitable transactions across the network, improving privacy (not all transactions from a node are yours) and improving the user experience of transaction broadcast.

The Mempool has a number of artificial constraints on what types of transactions it will accept by default. These limitations include static checks (e.g., the size of the transaction in bytes or “weight units”) and contextual checks (e.g., is this transaction mineable immediately, does it pay more fee than other transactions, or does it have more unconfirmed parent or grandparent transactions than permitted or cause another transaction to have more children transactions than permitted).

These rules are artificial in the sense that they are locally decided policies that are not generally enforced. In other words, when you mine a block, these Mempool restrictions are not considered. Why does the Mempool need to have stricter rules than a block?

It’s Complicated!

Many of the Mempool algorithms are “superlinearly algorithmically complex”. This means that as the Mempool grows, if these restrictions were not enforced, the amount of work to select transactions for a block to mine could grow as well, which can lead to resource exhaustion, denial-of-service, and cost miners money with a loss of uptime. Imagine it taking more time for a miner to decide what should go into a block than it takes to mine the block itself! Therefore we need stricter rules in the mempool to prevent these blowouts.

Visualization of Mempool with 800 transactions. See this PR for more details.

Visualization of Mempool with 800 transactions. See this PR for more details.

Unfortunately, a number of algorithms in the Mempool are suboptimal, meaning where a small amount of operations might be sufficient, a much larger amount is done. Suboptimal often also means that while the overall work is similar in terms of the number of operations, the algorithm’s operations are inefficient to run (maybe allocating too much memory or just doing something slowly).

Visualization of Mempool with 10,000 transactions. See this PR for more details. This makes it easy to see how the work becomes harder as more entries are added.

Visualization of Mempool with 10,000 transactions. See this PR for more details. This makes it easy to see how the work becomes harder as more entries are added.

These algorithms performance mean that we have to determine safe limitations for what we will accept into the Mempool that fits within our computational budgets, and if the performance is suboptimal, we end up with stricter limitations than necessary, or even end up requiring a limitation where it would be fine not to have any. Developers often determine safe limits experimentally (as opposed to by a rigorous proof), which means we have to include an additional safety margin in case we haven’t found the true worst case behavior.

What’s the worst that can happen?

Because we make a best effort, and not a perfect one, Mempool implementations have to make some tough decisions about which transactions to process and which to ignore in order to prevent resource exhaustion or other denial-of-service vulnerabilities. Even with the guards we have in place, it’s possible that a series of carefully crafted but otherwise normal input could cause all nodes on the network to crash or cease to be functional.

Fully understanding the gap between perfectly rational Mempool behavior and computationally limited Mempool behavior can be quite hard and full of surprising edge cases, which is the bane of many protocol developers and infrastructure operators.

As an example, there’s a generic issue called “mempool pinning” which impacts protocols like the Lightning Network or when exchanges payout via batches. The issue comes up when a transaction in the Mempool has two outputs owned by two different parties, one good, one evil. The evil party attaches a bunch of low-fee transactions to their output. Now, because of the Mempool’s limitations on how many child spends an unconfirmed transaction may have, the good party is unable to spend from their unconfirmed output. This seems like a minor problem, but the issue can be more severe in contexts that rely on Child Pays for Parent (CPFP) for paying for fees and have time lock conditions.

So what’re we gonna do about that?!

Don’t fret. Judica is working to improve the Mempool. The Mempool Project is an effort that has multiple components aimed at improving Mempool performance with the goal of reducing the maximum memory the Mempool requires to operate and improving performance. This work may ultimately lead to being able to remove some restrictions previously required or loosen them up. This makes application developers happy, improves mining revenue, and hopefully helps protocols be more robust against attacks.

To complete this work, multiple components must be developed simultaneously:

  1. Epoch Mempool – a base level algorithmic improvement across the Mempool with minimal architectural changes that has already shown major performance benefits (2-3x faster on difficult benchmarks) but requires more review and testing.

  2. Mempool Stress Tests – identifying and assembling a catalogue of worst-case exploitable behaviors (with and without current limitations enforced and other non standard node flags). This makes us more confident in the changes we’re making and can also discover and prevent regressions introducing new Denial-of-Service issues.

  3. Major architectural re-design – reconsideration of the general design of the Mempool to improve how transactions are selected for mining, relay, and eviction to fully address issues like pinning and improve rationality.


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